Senior Help Desk helthcare blog credited to The National Institute on Aging, part of NIH www.nia.nih.gov
Long-term care involves a variety of services designed to meet a person's health or personal care needs during a short or long period of time. These services help people live as independently and safely as possible when they can no longer perform everyday activities on their own.
Long-term care is provided in different places by different caregivers, depending on a person's needs. Most long-term care is provided at home by unpaid family members and friends. It can also be given in a facility such as a nursing home or in the community, for example, in an adult day care center.
The most common type of long-term care is personal care—help with everyday activities, also called "activities of daily living." These activities include bathing, dressing, grooming, using the toilet, eating, and moving around—for example, getting out of bed and into a chair.
Long-term care also includes community services such as meals, adult day care, and transportation services. These services may be provided free or for a fee.
People often need long-term care when they have a serious, ongoing health condition or disability. The need for long-term care can arise suddenly, such as after a heart attack or stroke. Most often, however, it develops gradually, as people get older and frailer or as an illness or disability gets worse.
Who Will Need Long-Term Care?
It is difficult to predict how much or what type of long-term care a person might need. Several things increase the risk of needing long-term care.
- Age.The risk generally increases as people get older.
- Gender. Women are at higher risk than men, primarily because they often live longer.
- Marital status. Single people are more likely than married people to need care from a paid provider.
- Lifestyle. Poor diet and exercise habits can increase a person's risk.
- Health and family history. These factors also affect risk.
Home-Based Long-Term Care Services
Home-based long-term care includes health, personal, and support services to help people stay at home and live as independently as possible. Most long-term care is provided either in the home of the person receiving services or at a family member's home. In-home services may be short-term—for someone who is recovering from an operation, for example—or long-term, for people who need ongoing help.
Most home-based services involve personal care, such as help with bathing, dressing, and taking medications, and supervision to make sure a person is safe. Unpaid family members, partners, friends, and neighbors provide most of this type of care.
Are you a long-distance caregiver? See When It’s Time to Leave Home.
Home-based long-term care services can also be provided by paid caregivers, including caregivers found informally, and healthcare professionals such as nurses, home health care aides, therapists, and homemakers, who are hired through home health care agencies. These services include: home health care, homemaker services, friendly visitor/companion services, and emergency response systems.
Home Health Care
Home health care involves part-time medical services ordered by a physician for a specific condition. These services may include nursing care to help a person recover from surgery, an accident, or illness. Home health care may also include physical, occupational, or speech therapy and temporary home health aide services. These services are provided by home health care agencies approved by Medicare, a government insurance program for people over age 65.
Home health agencies offer personal care and homemaker services that can be purchased without a physician's order. Personal care includes help with bathing and dressing. Homemaker services include help with meal preparation and household chores. Agencies do not have to be approved by Medicare to provide these kinds of services.
Find a Medicare-certified home health agency in your area.
Friendly Visitor/Companion Services
Friendly visitor/companion services are usually staffed by volunteers who regularly pay short visits (less than 2 hours) to someone who is frail or living alone. You can also purchase these services from home health agencies.
Transportation services help people get to and from medical appointments, shopping centers, and other places in the community. Some senior housing complexes and community groups offer transportation services. Many public transit agencies have services for people with disabilities. Some services are free. Others charge a fee.
Learn more about transportation services from Eldercare Locator.
Emergency Response Systems
Emergency response systems automatically respond to medical and other emergencies via electronic monitors. The user wears a necklace or bracelet with a button to push in an emergency. Pushing the button summons emergency help to the home. This type of service is especially useful for people who live alone or are at risk of falling. A monthly fee is charged.
To find home-based services, contact Eldercare Locator at 1-800-677-1116 or visit www.eldercare.gov. You can also call your local Area Agency on Aging , Aging and Disability Resource Center, department of human services or aging, or a social service agency.
Read more about getting help to stay at home.
Learn more about long-term care outside of the home.
For More Information About Long-Term Care